(i) Historical :
Indian Penal Code enacted by the British recognised only two genders, creating a binary that never existed.
Over time, these constructs were absorbed in Indian society. The community has since faced extreme forms of violence for not conforming to socially dictated gender identities.
In too many cases, this lack of legal protection translates into unemployment for transgender people.
(iii) Harassment and stigma:
The community still faces considerable stigma.
The community, especially those who are a part of the ‘guru-chela’ structure in Hijra gharanas and practise the traditions of “mangti” and “badhai”, are often harassed, detained under begging prohibition laws, and forced into begging homes.
Barrier to healthcare:
Face barriers to obtaining medically-necessary health services and encountering medical professionals who lacked transgender health care competency.
(v) Identity Documents :-
The widespread lack of accurate identity documents among transgender people can have an impact on every area of their lives, including access to emergency housing or other public services.
In the case of transgender children, their families, unable to accept their status, subject them to domestic violence, which often compels these children to leave home.
There are other issues that worry transgender persons such as their right to property, adoption, marriage, pension, and care for the old and the disabled.