(i) An industrial and trade policy is needed.


The Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP) is preparing an industrial policy. While the DIPP is preparing the industrial policy document, it is essential that trade policy is consistent with such an industrial policy. Otherwise the two may work at cross purposes and undermine each other’s objectives.


(ii) More focus on women participation: Girls are losing out in jobs, or those with increasing education can’t find them, despite having gotten higher levels of education.


Secondary enrolment in the country rose from 58% to 85% in a matter of five years (2010-2015), with gender parity. Skilling close to clusters is likely to create more no of jobs.


The availability of jobs close to where the skilling is conducted will also enhance the demand for skilling.


(iii) Special packages are needed for labour-intensive industries to create jobs.


There are a number of labour intensive manufacturing sectors in India such as food processing, leather and footwear, wood manufacturers and furniture, textiles and apparel and garments.


(iv) These need to address current skills shortages and be flexibly adapted to the nature of the workforce and to industry requirements.


(v) Public investments in health, education, police and judiciary. This can create many government jobs.


(vi) Cluster development: There should be cluster development to support job creation in micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs).


Most of the unorganised sector employment is in MSMEs, which tend to be concentrated in specific geographic locations.

There is a cluster development programme of the Ministry of MSMEs, which need to be funded adequately and better designed to create more opportunities.


(vii) Align urban development with manufacturing clusters to create jobs.


An engagement between the Urban Development and MSME Ministries is necessary to attract more investment to industrial clusters and increase non-agricultural jobs. As infrastructure investment by the government creates many jobs.


(viii) Long-term measures: The quality of primary education needs to improve.


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